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What's the connection between 5G technology and mmWave

2020-09-25 17:57:11

mmWave can be said to have many applications, among which the connection between 5G and mmWave is closer. It can be said that mmWave is the key to all the performance of 5G. Next, I will explain the bit by bit between mmWave and 5G to help you better understand the relationship between the two. The network speed, coverage, and service quality of 5G are largely determined by the method and conditions used by the government and regulators to allocate the appropriate amount and type of spectrum resources to mobile operators. These factors will affect 5G services in different countries. The potential of each country, thereby affecting the competitiveness of the digital economy of various countries.


GSMA believes that if there is no long-term, reliable, and predictable spectrum resource guarantee, in order to provide high-quality services, the risk of heavy asset investment required to build 5G networks will increase. Therefore, licensed spectrum is essential to provide affordable mobile broadband services to the public. As a key node of industrial development, WRC-19 will determine the global landing and commercial progress of 5G mmWave spectrum in the next ten years. It must be paid close attention to, and my country will play an important role in it.


GSMA believes that 5G needs spectrum in three key frequency ranges to provide a wide range of coverage and support all use cases: spectrum below 1GHz, which is mainly used for 5G mobile broadband coverage and helps support Internet of Things (IoT) services; The frequency spectrum of 1-6 GHz provides a good combination of coverage and capacity for 5G services; the frequency spectrum above 6 GHz is for ultra-high bandwidth services. GSMA pointed out that 5G requires a wider frequency band to support higher speeds and greater traffic. Providing each operator with at least 80-100MHz continuous spectrum in the main 5G intermediate frequency and providing each operator with a wide 1GHz continuous spectrum in the important mmWave band will be the best support for fast 5G services.

In this regard, the Chinese government has set a good example. In December 2018, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China issued a 5G system low- and mid-band test frequency license to the three major operators. Each basic telecommunications company obtained a continuous test frequency of 100MHz or above, ensuring the frequency resources necessary for 5G commercial applications.

With the development of mobile communication technology, spectrum resources are increasingly scarce. GSMA recommends that regulators should avoid setting aside spectrum for vertical markets in key frequency bands. GSMA believes that this approach will hinder the full release of the maximum use efficiency of 5G and waste spectrum resources. For example, due to the geographical restrictions of vertical industries, it is impossible to widely use these precious 5G spectrum resources within or between countries, resulting in a waste of resources. At the same time, the fragmentation of spectrum will also lead to the lack of scale and the increase of industrial costs.


In addition to 5G slicing technology, mobile operators can also set up private networks for enterprise users on-demand on the basis of coordinating the spectrum resources of the entire network to meet the application requirements of vertical industries. In recent years, the pace of global 5G spectrum auctions has accelerated. This method is considered by most countries to be the most fair and effective main means for spectrum allocation. However, according to GSMA's research, high spectrum prices are often associated with poor network coverage and expensive but low-quality information services, which seriously affect consumers' experience of services.


At the same time, spectrum auctions have not always been effective, and failure cases have appeared repeatedly. Especially when the deficit of some governments expands, trying to increase fiscal gains by auctioning spectrum at high prices to help balance the budget, it will exacerbate the increase in such failures. How to solve the 5G spectrum resource allocation method? GSMA believes that auctions should not be the only way to be considered for spectrum allocation. In some cases, administrative distribution may be a better choice.


GSMA said that China's approach to the government's allocation of spectrum and the issuance of 5G licenses is worth learning. China's four operators have obtained the corresponding 5G spectrum through administrative allocation. These spectrums are the results of the Chinese government and regulatory agencies after investigation and negotiation. Facts have proved that these frequency bands are in line with the needs of the three major operators and are of great benefit to their respective 5G deployments. At the same time, Finnish regulators and national operators agreed last year to share 5G spectrum equally at a reasonable price, which also benefits all parties without the need for spectrum auctions.


In recent years, more and more countries have begun to realize that the most successful auctions are not necessarily those that bring the most revenue. When the Swiss regulator recently allocated the 3.5GHz spectrum, it did not take the auction revenue as the final consideration, but adopted a more effective allocation mechanism to ensure that Switzerland can provide excellent 5G services. These successful experiences are not without trace. GSMA also summarized ten auction reference specifications for reference by governments and regulatory agencies of various countries. The mmWave spectrum can support extremely high data transmission rates and ultra-reliable, low-latency functions, which will provide support for new use cases and bring 5G benefits to consumers and businesses worldwide. The 5G mmWave spectrum is expected to create a global GDP of US$565 billion and US$152 billion in taxes between 2020 and 2034.


The global uniform division of millimeter-wave spectrum at WRC-19 is vital to the development of the 5G industry. It will create the largest economies of scale and help the industry provide more affordable broadband prices globally. GSMA proposes to allocate 26GHz (24.25-27.5GHz), 40GHz (37.5-43.5GHz) and 66-71GHz frequency band resources for mobile services on WRC-19. Among them, 26GHz will most hopefully become a globally unified 5G mmWave frequency band.


While deciding to allocate these frequency bands to mobile services, it is also necessary to pay attention to the allocated bandwidth. GSMA proposes to expand the continuous spectrum to 1GHz for each operator in the mmWave frequency band (i.e. above 24GHz), of which a sufficient amount of unified 5G spectrum is essential to achieve the fastest 5G speed, low-cost equipment deployment and international roaming as well as possible Reducing cross-border interference is crucial.


GSMA believes that from the results of technical research led by the ITU, in the application of 5G mmWave bands, under some reasonable protection conditions, mobile services and existing services can coexist. Global governments need to work together to protect conditions. Making a prudent and reasonable choice can not only provide adequate and reasonable protection for existing services, but also ensure the reasonable frequency utilization of the 5G industry, and ultimately achieve a win-win effect. Don't let excessive protection slow down the development of 5G. As a leading country in 5G development, China needs to negotiate closely with governments and promote the mmWave division resolution that is beneficial to the healthy development of 5G at WRC-19, laying a key foundation for the full release of 5G capabilities.


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